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With the rapid development of industry, a larger and larger range

of Chemicals are invented and widely used in the production like




Fluorine is an univalent poisonous gaseous halogen, it is pale

yellow-green and it is the most chemically reactive and

electronegative of all the elements. Fluorine readily forms compounds

with most other elements, even with the noble gases krypton, xenon

and radon. It is so reactive that glass, metals, and even water, as

well as other substances, burn with a bright flame in a jet of

fluorine gas.

    In aqueous solution, fluorine commonly occurs as the fluoride ion

F-. Fluorides are compounds that combine fluoride with some

positively charged counterpart.

Atomic fluorine and molecular fluorine are used for plasma etching in

semiconductor manufacturing, flat panel display production and MEMs

fabrication. Fluorine is indirectly used in the production of low

friction plastics such as teflon and in halons such as freon, in the

production of uranium. Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are used extensively

in air conditioning and in refrigeration. Fluorides are often added

to toothpaste and, somewhat controversially, to municipal water

supplies to prevent dental cavities. Fore more information visit our

page on mineral water.

Small amounts of fluorine are naturally present in water, air, plants

and animals. As a result humans are exposed to fluorine through food

and drinking water and by breathing air. Fluorine can be found in any

kind of food in relatively small quantities. Large quantities of

fluorine can be found in tea and shellfish. Fluorine is essential for

the maintenance of solidity of our bones. Fluorine can also protect

us from dental decay, if it is applied through toothpaste twice a

day. If fluorine is absorbed too frequently, it can cause teeth

decay, osteoporosis and harm to kidneys, bones, nerves and muscles.

Fluorine gas is released in the industries. This gas is very

dangerous, as it can cause death at very high concentrations. At low

concentrations it causes eye and nose irritations.

When fluorine from the air ends up in water it will settle into the

sediment. When it ends up in soils, fluorine will become strongly

attached to soil particles. In the environment fluorine cannot be

destroyed; it can only change form. Fluorine that is located in soils

may accumulate in plants. The amount of uptake by plants depends upon

the type of plant and the type of soil and the amount and type of

fluorine found in the soil. With plants that are sensitive for

fluorine exposure even low concentrations of fluorine can cause leave

damage and a decline in growth. Too much fluoride, wheater taken in

form the soil by roots, or asdorbed from the atmosphere by the

leaves, retards the growth of plants and reduces crop yields. Those

more affected are corns and apricots.

Animals that eat fluorine-containing plants may accumulate large

amounts of fluorine in their bodies. Fluorine primarily accumulates

in bones. Consequently, animals that are exposed to high

concentrations of fluorine suffer from dental decay and bone

degradation. Too much fluorine can also cause the uptake of food from

the paunch to decline and it can disturb the development of claws.

Finally, it can cause low birth-weights.

Just like Fluorine Chemicals


Chemicals[/url] are also commonly used. Lithium is the first of the

alkalis in the periodic table. In nature it’s found like a mixture

of the isotopes Li6 and Li7. It's the lightest solid metal, and

is soft, silvery-white, with a low melting point and reactive. Many

of its physical and chemical properties are more similar to those of

the alkaline earth metals than to those of its own group. Between the

most significant properties of lithium we find its high specific heat

(calorific capacity), the huge temperature interval in the liquid

state, high termic conductivity, low viscosity and very low density.

Metallic lithium is soluble in short chain aliphatic amines, like

etilamine. It's insoluble in hydrocarbons.


Lithium takes part in a huge number of reactions, with organic

reactants as well as with inorganic reactants. It reacts with oxygen

to form monoxide and peroxide. It’s the only alkaline metal that

reacts with nitrogen at ambient temperature to produce a black

nitrure. It reacts easily with hydrogen at almost 500oC (930oF) to

form lithium hydride. Metallic lithium’s reaction with water is

extremely vigorous. Lithium reacts directly with the carbon to

produce the carbure. It binds easily with halogens and forms

halogenures with light emission. Although it doesn’t react with

parafinic hydrocarbons, it experiments addition reactions with

alquenes substituted by arile and diene groups. It also reacts with

acetylenic compounds, forming lithium acetylures, which are important

in vitamin A synthesis.

The main lithium compound is the lithium hydroxide. It's a white

powder; the manufactured material is monohydrate lithium hydroxide.

The carbonate can be used in the pottery industry and in medicine as

an antidepressant. The bromine and the lithium chloride both form

concentrated brine, which have the property of absorbing the humidity

in a wide interval of temperature; these brines are used in the

manufactured air conditioning systems.

The main industrial use of lithium is in lithium stearatum form, as

lubricant grease's thickener. Other important applications of

lithium compounds are in pottery, specifically in porcelain glaze; as

an additive to extend the life and performance of alkaline storage

batteries and in autogenous welding and brass welding.

Except for the kinds metioned above, there are


chemicals[/url] especially for


Electronic Grade Chemicals[/url] like


Alumina Chemicals[/url].
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